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This excerpt from The Cycle was written by Jennifer Aldoretta

[1] Kotex. “U by Kotex Barely There* Thin Liners” Accessed October, 2013. http://www.kotex.com/NA/products/u-by-kotex-barely-there-thin-liners/90412.

[2] Tampax. “Tampax radiant compak super tampons.” Accessed October 27, 2013. http://www.tampax.com/en-us/products/radiant/tampax-radiant-compak-super.aspx.

[3] Zhang , Jun, A. G. Thomas, and Etel Leybovich. “Vaginal Douching and Adverse Health Effects: A Meta-Analysis.” American Journal of Public Health 87, no. 7 (1997): 1207-1211. Accessed August 15, 2013. doi:10.2105/AJPH.87.7.1207.

[4] Martino, Jenny L., and Sten H. Vermund. “Vaginal Douching: Evidence for Risks or Benefits to Women’s Health.” Epidemiologic Reviews 24, no. 2 (2002): 109-124. Accessed August 15, 2013. doi:10.1093/epirev/mxf004.

[5] Carr, Phillys L., Donna Felsenstein, and Robert H. Friedman. “Evaluation and Management of Vaginitis.” Journal of General Internal Medicine 13, no. 5 (1998): 335-346. Accessed October, 2013. doi:10.1046/j.1525-1497.1998.00101.x.

[6] Merck. “NuvaRing: How it Works.” Accessed September, 2013. http://www.nuvaring.com/Consumer/how-it-works/index.asp.

[7] Summer’s Eve. “Cleansing cloths.” Accessed October 27, 2013. http://www.summerseve.com/products/cleansing-cloths.

[8] Rabbi Berkowitz, M. “Mikveh and the Sanctity of Family Relations.” Last modified 2006. http://www.rabbinicalassembly.org/sites/default/files/public/halakhah/teshuvot/20052010/mikveh_introduction.pdf.

[9] Leviticus 15:19-30, 18:19, 20:18.

[10] Berkowitz, “Mikveh and the Sanctity of Family Relations.”

[11] Martin, R C. Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim world. New York: Macmillan Reference USA, 2004.

[12] Chavez-MacGregor, M, C. H. Van Gils, Y. T. Van der Schouw, E. Monninkhof, P. A. Van Noord, and P. H. Peeters. “Lifetime Cumulative Number of Menstrual Cycles and Serum Sex Hormone Levels in Postmenopausal Women.” Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 108, no. 1 (2008): 101-112. Accessed July, 2013. doi:10.1007/s10549-007-9574-z.

[13] Weschler, Toni. Taking Charge of Your Fertility: The Definitive Guide to Natural Birth Control, Pregnancy Achievement, and Reproductive Health. 10th Anniversary ed. New York, NY: Collins, 2006.

[14] Wilcox, Allen J., Clarice R. Weinberg, and Donna D. Baird. “Timing of Sexual Intercourse in Relation to Ovulation: Effects on the Probability of Conception, Survival of the Pregnancy, and Sex of the Baby.” The New England Journal of Medicine 333, no. 23 (1995): 1517-1521. Accessed August 11, 2013. doi: 10.1056/NEJM199512073332301.

[15] Dunson, D B., D. D. Baird, A. J. Wilcox, and C. R. Weinberg. “Day-Specific Probabilities of Clinical Pregnancy Based on Two Studies with Imperfect Measures of Ovulation.” Human Reproduction 14, no. 7 (1999): 1835-1839. Accessed August 15, 2013. doi:10.1093/humrep/14.7.1835.

[16] Skouby, S O. “Contraceptive Use and Behavior in the 21st Century: A Comprehensive Study across Five European Countries.” The European Journal of Contraception and Reproductive Health Care 15, no. 52 (2010): 542-553. Accessed December 19, 2012. doi:10.3109/13625187.2010.533002.

[17] Jones, Jo, William Mosher, Kimberly Daniels, and Division of Vital Statistics. Current Contraceptive Use in the United States, 2006–2010, and Changes in Patterns of Use Since 1995. National Health Statistics Reports, 2012. Accessed April 2, 2013. http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nhsr/nhsr060.pdf.

[18] Benson Gold, Rachel, Adam Sonfield, Cory L. Richards, and Jennifer F. Frost. Next Steps for America’s Family Planning Program: Leveraging the Potential of Medicaid and Title X in an Evolving Health Care System. New York: Guttmacher Institute, 2009. Accessed November 5, 2013. http://www.guttmacher.org/pubs/NextSteps.pdf.

[19] Patel, Amit N., Eulsoon Park, Michael Kuzman, Federico Benetti, Francisco J. Silva, and Julie G. Allickson. “Multipotent Menstrual Blood Stromal Stem Cells: Isolation, Characterization, and Differentiation.” Cell Transplantation 17 (2008): 303-311. Accessed August 8, 2013. doi:10.3122/jabfm.2009.02.080038.

[20] Ibid.

[21] HelloFlo. “The Camp Gyno.” Video file. July 28, 2013. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0XnzfRqkRxU.

[22] Erickson, Gregory F. “Chapter 12: Follicle Growth & Development.” In Gynecology & Obstetrics: Reproductive Endocrinology, Infertility, and Genetics, 5th ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2004. http://www.glowm.com/resources/glowm/cd/pages/v5/v5c012.html.

[23] Sallam, H N., M. I. Whitehead, and W. P. Collins. “Incidence of Mature Follicles in Spontaneous and Induced Ovarian Cycles.” The Lancet 1 (1983): 357. Accessed October, 2013. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(83)91661-6.

[24] Weschler, Taking Charge of Your Fertility.

[25] Orringer, Kelly, and Shiela Gahagan. “Adolescent Girls Define Menstruation: A Multiethnic Exploratory Study.” Health Care for Women International 31 (2010): 831-847. Accessed May 18, 2013. doi:10.1080/07399331003653782.

[26] Freundl, G, I. Sivin, and I. Batár. “State-of-the-Art of Non-Hormonal Methods of Contraception: IV. Natural Family Planning.” The European Journal of Contraception and Reproductive Health Care 15 (2010): 113-123. Accessed December 13, 2012. doi: 10.3109/13625180903545302.

[27] Pallone, Stephen R., and George R. Bergus. “Fertility Awareness-Based Methods: Another Option for Family Planning.” Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine 22 (2009): 147-157. Accessed April 10, 2013. doi:10.3122/jabfm.2009.02.080038.

[28] Weschler, Taking Charge of Your Fertility.

[29] Ehling, Dagmar, and Katie Singer. “Gauging a Woman’s Health by Her Fertility Signals: Integrating Western with Traditional Chinese Medical Observations.” Alternative Therapies 5, no. 6 (1999): 70-83. Accessed July 16, 2013. http://www.gardenoffertility.com/pdf/9911-ehling.pdf.

[30] Weschler, Taking Charge of Your Fertility.

[31] Wilcox, “Timing of Sexual Intercourse in Relation to Ovulation: Effects on the Probability of Conception, Survival of the Pregnancy, and Sex of the Baby.”

[32] Dunson, “Day-Specific Probabilities of Clinical Pregnancy Based on Two Studies with Imperfect Measures of Ovulation.”

[33] Eldridge, Laura. In Our Control: The Complete Guide to Contraceptive Choices for Women. New York, NY: Seven Stories Press, 2010.

[34] Planned Parenthood. “Fertility Awareness-Based Methods - What is the Symptothermal Method?” Accessed September, 2013. http://www.plannedparenthood.org/health-topics/birth-control/fertility-awareness-4217.htm.

[35] Weschler, Taking Charge of Your Fertility.

[36] Frank-Herrmann, P, J. Heil, C. Gnoth, E. Toledo, S. Baur, C. Pyper, E. Jenetzky, T. Strowitzki, and G. Freundl. “The Effectiveness of a Fertility Awareness Based Method to Avoid Pregnancy in Relation to a Couple’s Sexual Behavior during the Fertile Time: A Prospective Longitudinal Study.” Journal of Human Reproduction 22, no. 5 (2007): 1310-1319. Accessed March 20, 2013. doi:10.1093/humrep/dem003.

[37] Planned Parenthood. “Birth Control Pills - How Effective are Birth Control Pills?” Accessed October 25, 2013. http://www.plannedparenthood.org/health-topics/birth-control/birth-control-pill-4228.htm.

[38] Philipson, Sarah, Claire E. Wakefield, and Nadine A. Kasparian. “Women’s Knowledge, Beliefs, and Information Needs in Relation to the Risks and Benefits Associated with the Use of the Oral Contraceptive Pill.” Journal of Women’s Health 20 (2011): 635-642. Accessed December 13, 2012. doi:10.1089/jwh.2010.2455.

[39] Pallone, “Fertility Awareness-Based Methods: Another Option for Family Planning.”

[40] Christin-Maitre, S. “History of Oral Contraceptive Drugs and Their Use Worldwide.” Best Practice & Research: Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 27, no. 1 (2013): 3-12. Accessed June, 2013. doi:10.1016/j.beem.2012.11.004.

[41] Cogliano, Vincent, Yann Grosse, Robert Baan, Kurt Straif, Béatrice Secretan, and Fatiha El Ghissassi. “Combined Estrogen-Progestogen Contraceptives and Combined Estrogen-Progestogen Menopausal Therapy.” WHO International Agency for Research on Cancer. Last modified 2007, http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Monographs/vol91/mono91.pdf.

[42] Ibid.

[43] National Cancer Institute. “Cancer of the Ovary - SEER Stat Fact Sheets.” Accessed November, 2013. http://seer.cancer.gov/statfacts/html/ovary.html.

[44] National Cancer Institute. “Cancer of the Endometrium - SEER Stat Fact Sheets.” Accessed November 1, 2013. http://seer.cancer.gov/statfacts/html/corp.html.

[45] National Cancer Institute. “Cancer of the Breast - SEER Stat Fact Sheets.” Accessed November 1, 2013. http://seer.cancer.gov/statfacts/html/breast.html.

[46] Cibula, D, A. Gompel, A. O. Mueck, C. La Vecchia, P. C. Hannaford, S. O. Skouby, M. Zikan, and L. Dusek. “Hormonal Contraception and Risk of Cancer.” Human Reproduction Update 16, no. 6 (2010): 631-650. Accessed August 17, 2013. doi:10.1093/humupd/dmq022.

[47] Wiegratz, Inka, and Christian J. Thaler. “Hormonal Contraception–What Kind, When, and for Whom?” Deutsches Arzteblatt International 108, no. 28-29 (2011): 495-506. Accessed July, 2013. doi: 10.3238/arztebl.2011.0495.

[48] Stegeman, Bernardine H., M. de Bastos, Frits R. Rosendaal, A. van Hylckama Vlieg, Frans M. Helmerhorst, Theo Stijnen, and Olaf M. Dekkers. “Different Combined Oral Contraceptives and the Risk of Venous Thrombosis: Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis.” British Medical Journal 347: (2013). Accessed October 15, 2013. doi: 10.1136/bmj.f5298. http://www.bmj.com/content/347/bmj.f5298.

[49] Tanis, Bea C., Maurice Van den Bosch, Jeanet M. Kemmeren, Volkert Manger Cats, Frans M. Helmerhorst, Ale Algra, Yolanda Van der Graaf, and Frits R. Rosendaal. “Oral Contraceptives and the Risk of Myocardial Infarction.” The New England Journal of Medicine 345, no. 25 (2001): 1787-1793. Accessed August 19, 2013. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa003216.

[50] Gillum, Leslie A., Sai K. Mamidipudi, and S. Johnston. “Ischemic Stroke Risk with Oral Contraceptives: A Meta-Analysis.” The Journal of the American Medical Association 284, no. 1 (2000): 72-78. Accessed September 13, 2013. doi:10.1001/jama.284.1.72.

[51] Vogt, C, and M. Schaefer. “Disparities in Knowledge and Interest about Benefits and Risks of Combined Oral Contraceptives.” The European Journal of Contraception and Reproductive Health 16 (2011): 183-193. Accessed August 15, 2013. doi: 10.3109/13625187.2011.561938.

[52] Szarewski, Anne, and Cecilia Moeller. “Women’s Perceptions about Reducing the Frequency of Monthly Bleeding: Results from a Multinational Survey.” Open Access Journal of Contraception 4 (2013): 29-37. Accessed August 15, 2013. http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OAJC.S44234.

[53] Rogers, Wendy A. “The Tangled Web of Medical and Commercial Interests.” Health Expectations 10 (2007): 1-3. Accessed December 13, 2012. doi:10.1111/j.1369-7625.2007.00432.x.

[54] Dana, Jason, and George Lowenstein. “A Social Science Perspective on Gifts to Physicians from Industry.” The Journal of the American Medical Association 290 (2003): 252-255. Accessed May, 2013. doi:10.1001/jama.290.2.252.

[55] Perlis, R, C. Perlis, Y. Wu, C. Hwang, M. Joseph, and A. Nierenberg. “Industry Sponsorship and Financial Conflict of Interest in the Reporting of Clinical Trials in Psychiatry.” American Journal of Psychiatry 162 (2005): 1957-1960. Accessed September, 2013. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.162.10.1957.

[56] Tuffs, Annette. “Only 6% of Drug Advertising Material is Supported by Evidence.” British Medical Journal 328 (2004): 485. Accessed July, 2013. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.328.7438.485-a.

[57] Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia, Susan L. Hendrix, Marian Limacher, Gerardo Heiss, Charles Kooperberg, Alison Baird, Theodore Kotchen, J. D. Curb, Henry Black, and Jacques E. Rossouw. “Effect of Estrogen Plus Progestin on Stroke in Postmenopausal Women.” The Journal of the American Medical Association 289, no. 20 (2003): 2673-2684. Accessed June 15, 2013. doi:10.1001/jama.289.20.2673.

[58] Rossouw, J E., G. L. Anderson, R. L. Prentice, A. Z. LaCroix, C. Kooperberg, M. L. Stefanick, R. D. Jackson, S. A. Beresford, B. V. Howard, and K. C. Johnson. “Risks and Benefits of Estrogen Plus Progestin in Healthy Post-Menopausal Women: Principal Results from the Women’s Health Initiative Randomized Controlled Rrial.” The Journal of the American Medical Association 288 (2002): 321-333. Accessed July, 2013. doi:10.1001/jama.288.3.321.

[59] National Cancer Institute. “Links to NCI Materials.” Accessed October, 2013. http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/causes/hormonetherapy/menopausal-hormone-use/Page2.

[60] Gutiahr-Gobell, R E., G. E. Zaroogian, D. J. Horowitz, T. R. Gleason, and L. J. Mills. “Individual Effects of Estrogens on a Marine Fish, Cunner (Tautogolabrus adspersus), Extrapolated to the Population Level.” Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 63, no. 2 (2006): 244-252. Accessed July, 2013. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2005.05.017.

[61] Pallone, “Fertility Awareness-Based Methods: Another Option for Family Planning.”

[62] Weschler, Taking Charge of Your Fertility.

[63] Ibid.

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